Effect of First World War & Khilafat movement
This war, which lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918, was the largest war of the twentieth century that affected almost all the countries of the world. It was a clear expression of the feeling of fierce nationalism and the rise of imperialism. This world war created a new economic and political situation which led to a large increase in the defense expenditure of the countries and large-scale loans were taken to compensate the same. Taxes were increased. This resulted in a sharp jump in commodity prices. In the years 1913 to 1918, the price had doubled due to this, life was being severely affected. In order to fulfill the need of soldiers for the war, forcible recruitment was being done from the village, due to which people had great anger and anger towards the colonial government. In 1918-19 and 1920-21, there was also a food crisis in the country. At the same time, about 120 -30 lakh people died due to the outbreak of an epidemic called flu in the country. People hoped that after the end of the war their sufferings would be alleviated, but this did not happen at the same time Mahatma Gandhi emerged on the scene of Indian politics, who started a new method of retaliation for tyranny with the weapon of truth, non-violence, non-cooperation, and satyagraha.
Muslims of India considered the Turkish Sultan to be the Caliph of Islam. In the First World War, Turkey was with the Axis nations (Germany, Austria, and Hungary) as opposed to the Allies (England, Japan, Russia, France, and the United States) so Britain not only ended the post of Caliph after the victory in the First World War. Instead of dividing Turkey, Indian Muslims started the Khilafat movement against the British government. The main leaders of this movement were Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and Mohammad Ali. They had three main demands which are as follows-
1) The Sultan of Turkey remained in control of the Caliph in the holy places of the Muslims. 2) There was so much land under the Caliphate that it could protect Islam.
3) Muslims continued to have sovereignty over Jarijati ul Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, and Palestine).
This movement lasted from 1919 to 1924 and its main objective was to re-establish the post of Turkish caliph. The main feature of this movement was that all the Muslim communities of then British India united with the Hindus and opposed the colonial power at the national level. The Khilafat movement under the leadership of the Ali brothers (Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali) spread almost all over South Asia. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad propagated the Khilafat Movement through “Al-Hilal” and Mohammad Ali “Comrades” newspapers. All India Khilafat Committee was formed. Mahatma Gandhi presided over the first meeting of the Khilafat Committee to be held in Delhi on 24 November 1919. The main objective of joining the Mahatma Gandhi movement was to get the support of Muslims in the Indian independence movement. For this reason, both these movements are also called twin movements.