Definition of Water Resources
Water available in the form of solid, liquid, and vapor on the earth is called water resources. It is found on mountain peaks in the solid-state in the form of ice, in the ground, and below it in liquid form and as vapor in the atmosphere. Water is an essential substance for the life of all living beings. Humans have 65% water in their own physical organization. Greenery in trees and plants is due to this water. About 40% in trees, about 90% in aquatic plants, 95% in jellyfish sea creatures, 75% in eggs, about 95% in cucumber and cucumber.
Distribution of Water on the Earth
About 3 fourth of the planet is covered with water. 97% of this is found as saline water in the oceans and the remaining 3% as fresh water in rivers, ponds, mountains, Antarctica, and Greenland is ice and liquid form. About 70% of the world’s fresh water is found in Antarctica, Greenland, and mountainous regions in the form of ice sheets and glaciers. In this way, only 1% of the total water found on the earth is suitable for humans, plants, and terrestrial animals, which is found in lakes, rivers, water streams, ponds, and underground as freshwater. According to the Nation’s World Water Development Report 2013, by 2025, about 25 crores of people of the world will face a water crisis. India receives about 4% of the world’s total rainfall and ranks 133rd in terms of water availability per capita per year. The total renewable water resource in India is estimated at 1897 sq km per year.
Types of Water Resources on Earth
There are 5 main water resources are found on the Earth which are mentioned below-
The saline water of the sea is not suitable for human use. In addition to transportation in this water, salt, fish, pearls, and medicinal plants and animals are procured. Rivers bring the salts they bring with them into the oceans, which makes the seawater salty. The sea is situated to the south, west, and east of the peninsular part of India. Mumbai, Cochin, Kandla, Kolkata, and Visakhapatnam are the major ports of India through which foreign trade also takes place.
2. Geological Water
In all water resources, geological water is very important for us. The part of the water that gets absorbed and goes under the earth by the ground is called geological water. It is also called underground water. This water is extracted from the groundwater and used by hand pipes, tube wells, and wells. Out of the irrigated area in India, 62 percent of irrigation is being done from groundwater, 26 percent from canals, 4 percent from ponds, and 8 percent from other means. In India, 80 percent of the total water expenditure is used for irrigation. The way groundwater is being exploited in India, conditions can be quite dangerous in the future. At present, 29% of the development blocks are either at a pathetic level of groundwater or are worrying and according to some statistics, by 2025, about 40% of the blocks will be in a worrisome state.
Due to the excess temperature, the water of the oceans evaporates into the atmosphere from where it forms a cloud and rains on the surface. It is the purest form of water. Some part of the water received by the year is absorbed by the ground and goes into the ground, some part evaporates and the remaining part reaches rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.
4. The Water of Ponds
Rainwater collects in the lower parts of the surface and takes the form of a pond. The wide form of the pond is called a lake. Some ponds are natural and some are made artificially. About two lakh ponds are found in India which are used for irrigation and fisheries. In the state of Tamil Nadu, India, most of the irrigation is done through ponds.
5. The Water of Rivers
The stream of water flowing on the earth is called a river. Rivers carry the melted snow, rain, and other sources of water from the mountains to the sea. In India, except Narmada and Tapti rivers, the remaining rivers merge into the Indian Ocean while Narmada and Tapti fall into the Arabian Sea.