Just as Gandhiji’s non-cooperation movement was interpreted according to the fulfillment of his interests by different sections of society, similarly in the Civil Disobedience Movement, various communities of the society contributed to the desire of fulfilling their personal interests. It can be understood as follows-
1:Contribution of farmers:
Patidars of Gujarat and the affluent farmers of the Jat community of Uttar Pradesh were very upset with the slowdown in business and falling prices due to the cultivation of commercial crops, making it difficult to pay the government rent and the government was not willing to reduce the revenue. Hence Swaraj’s fight for him in the Civil Disobedience Movement was against heavy rent. But when the movement was withdrawn in 1931 without reducing the rent, there was no major disappointment. Whereas the poor peasants not only wanted to reduce the rent but also waived the rent of the leased land received from the zamindars as they were cultivating the leased land from the landlords and their income was also lost due to the effects of the Great Depression. Fearing the resentment of rich farmers and zamindars, Congress was hesitant to support anti-freight movements. For this reason, relations between poor farmers and Congress remained uncertain.
2: Contribution of traders and industrialists:
During the First World War Indian merchants and industrialists had profited extensively, thereby opposing unfavorable colonial policies for the spread of their occupation. He wanted protection from the import of foreign goods and a change in the rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio to reduce imports. In order to fulfill his business interests, in 1920 he served the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress (IICC) and In 1927, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) was formed.
Industrialists, led by well-known industrialists like Purushottam Das Tandon and GD Birla, opposed colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the first civil disobedience movement. They also financed the movement and refused to buy or sell imported goods. done. Most businessmen saw Swaraj as an era where there would be no colonial restrictions on trade and trade and industry would be able to move forward smoothly.
3: Worker’s contribution:
Since there was already a conflict between the industrialists and the workers, as the industrialists were getting closer to the Congress, the workers were moving away from the Congress, so a large number of workers did not participate in the civil disobedience movement anywhere other than Nagpur. Nevertheless, some workers participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. He associated some Gandhian ideas like the boycott of foreign goods with his fight against low wages and poor working conditions. In 1930, there was a strike by railway workers and in 1932 by dockworkers. In 1930, thousands of laborers of tin mines of Chhota Nagpur wore Gandhi caps and participated in rallies and boycott campaigns. The main purpose of all of the workers to participate in the disobedience movement was to get good pay and good working conditions.
4: Contribution of women:
Women participated extensively in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Their main objective to participate in this was to achieve equality with men in society and women’s life. They took part in the procession, made salt, boycotted foreign clothes, and also picketed liquor shops. Many women also went to jail. On Gandhiji’s call, women began to see their sacred duty to serve the nation.
Thus we see that although different sections of the society had their different objectives to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, their fight was against the colonial rule of power, and under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, people believed that he This movement, therefore, succeeded in weakening the British rule to a great extent. Fearing this movement, the British government organized 3 round table conferences in London with the aim of ending the movement by negotiating with nationalist leaders.