It is made from the rotten throat substance of dead organisms and vegetation buried inside the earth millions of years ago. It is found in a gaseous state. It is generally a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, in which up to 87–92% methane is found. Natural gas is an important energy resource that is found independently above petroleum wells and is the first to be obtained at the time of petroleum extraction. It is used as a source of energy and as a raw industrial material for the petrochemical industry. The energy and fertilizer industry is a major user of natural gas. Its major uses are as follows –
- In composting,
- To make electricity,
- In city gas distribution,
- In domestic gas use,
- As a fuel for vehicles,
- As fuel in factories.
Natural gas exploration and production are done by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation), and GAIL (Gas Authority of India Limited). The Mumbai High oil field, located in the western coastal region of India, receives the most natural gas. The largest reserves of natural gas in the country are estimated in the Krishna-Godavari valley. This area is named the D6 block. Andaman and Nicobar Deep Group is also an important area of natural gas.
The longest gas pipeline in the country is the Hazira-Vijaypur-Jagdishpur (H.V.J. gas pipeline) that starts from Gujarat and goes through Uttar Pradesh to Uttar Pradesh. This pipeline is used to transport natural gas from Mumbai High. It is the first cross-state gas pipeline in India. The first phase of the non-branched 1,750 km grid project was commissioned in 1997. The system was later expanded to provide gas for industrial and domestic use in Rajasthan, Haryana, and NCT states with additional branches and the total length of the grid was 3,474 km.
Natural gas is considered environmentally friendly due to low carbon dioxide emissions. P.N.G., C.N.G., and L. N. G. Natural gases have different forms under different temperatures and pressures.
Piped Natural Gas (P.N.G.)
It is flammable but not explosive. In simple terms, it is easier to use than LPG. For this reason, it is preferred as a fuel in many industrial manufacturing processes. PNG is stored in a location so that it can be continuously transported from the source via the pipeline. PNG Gas is 30% cheaper than domestic gas. Natural gas is odorless. Ethyl mercaptan is added to detect any type of leakage. This gas catches fire only when mixed with air up to 515%, even if LPG is mixed with 2% or more of air. The fire catches up so is safe from LPG.
Compressed Natural Gas (C.N.G.)
A liquid formed by keeping naturally found flammable gas under extreme pressure is called Compressed Natural Gas. The main purpose of suppressing natural gas is to reduce the volume and enter the combustion cell of the engine with appropriate pressure. CNG Gases are colorless, odorless, and toxic. It is used as fuel and as an energy source for driving vehicles in many countries. CNG is a mixture of hydrocarbons containing about 80% to 90% methane in the form of gas. It is compressed at a pressure of 200 to 250 kg / cm2. It is used in both diesel engines and petrol engines. CNG is available in large quantities in India. The total local reserves of natural gas in India are believed to be up to 27 years of supply on current demand, while the amount of crude oil reserves in India is less than 5.5 years of supply. CNG is currently the best fuel for motor vehicles due to low operating costs, environmentally friendly, and the increased life span of lubricating oil.
Liquified Natural Gas (L.N.G.)
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a colorless, non-toxic liquid. LNG is formed when natural gas is cooled to -160 degrees centigrade. During this time a lot of impurities are removed from it. Therefore it is considered the purest form of natural gas. This shrinks 600 times the volume of gas, making it easier to store and ship in energy-rich cities and cities. A cryogenic storage tank is needed to store it. Liquified Natural Gas is used to transport natural gas from one location to another in liquid form, which is then converted into CNG and used.