Although the majority of the society took part in the civil disobedience movement, some social groups remained almost away from it. He feared from the conservative upper-caste Hindu Sanatan pantheons of the Congress that even after attaining Swaraj, his condition was not going to improve so he not only stayed away from this movement but parallel to it by creating separate organizations for his personal interests Dalit and minority social groups were prominent among them.
Dalit or Scheduled Caste Role in civil disobedience movement:
Disregard of the Congress was the main reason for the depressed class not participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress was afraid of orthodox upper-caste Hindu Sanatan cults, yet Mahatma Gandhi declared that Swaraj cannot be established even for 100 years without abolishing untouchability or untouchability. He described the untouchables as Harijan, children of God. Satyagraha was done to give them equal rights over temples, public ponds, roads, and wells, he also started cleaning toilets to give prestige to the work of women takers. He called upon the upper castes to change their heart and shun the sin of untouchability. But many Dalit leaders wanted to find a different political solution to the problems of their community. He demanded reservation in educational institutions and constituencies. He believed that he could not get social justice without political empowerment.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar formed Depressed Class Association in 1930 AD in order of differences with Congress. He went to London to attend the Round Table Conference and there was a lot of controversy with Mahatma Gandhi over his demand for separate constituencies. When the British Government acceded to Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death. Gandhiji believed that the system of separate constituencies for the Dalits would slow down their integration process in society. Finally, as a result of the mediation of many top leaders, Ambedkar accepted Gandhi’s opinion and on 24 September 1932 in the Yerwada Central Jail, Pune Signed the Poona Pact and accepted the method of joint election in place of the right of separate electorate received from the British at the Communal Awards but increased the number of reserved seats from the Communal Awards to 71 from 148.
First Round Table Conference In London
Also, in every province for the untouchable people, an adequate amount was allocated in education grants and ensured the recruitment of Dalit people in government jobs without any discrimination. Even then, the national movement under the leadership of the Dalit Congress continued to look suspiciously.
Role of Muslim class in civil disobedience movement:
After the non-cooperation-Khilafat movement went to a standstill, a large section of Muslims started feeling quite insecure with the so-called Hindu appeasement policy of the Congress. In this, the role of organizations like Hindu Mahasabha of Congress was also important, Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots also took place in many cities, which increased the gap between the two communities. But in 1927, there was a possibility that there would be a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League. The original differences between the two were only about representation in future assemblies.
Muslim leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah demanded that Muslims be given reserved seats in the Central Assembly and Muslims in Muslim-majority provinces (Bengal and Punjab) represented in proportion to the population. If given, he is ready to give up the demand for a separate electorate for Muslims. But this agreement could not be reached due to the extreme opposition of M.R. Jayakar led Hindu Mahasabha in 1928. So when the Civil Disobedience Movement started, a large section of Congress-cut Muslims was not ready for any joint struggle. Many Muslim leaders and Intellectuals were worrying about the status of Muslims as minorities in India and they feared that the culture and identity of the minorities would come under the dominion of the Hindu majority.
Thus we can say that Congress could not gain the support of all sections of society due to its inherent weaknesses in the Civil Disobedience Movement, which benefited the British Government. Had it been contemplated before the movement, the picture would have been different.