India is an agricultural country. About two-thirds of the population here depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Economic activities include agriculture as the primary activity. Indian Agriculture provides not only food grains but also raw materials for various industries. The cotton textile industry, rubber industry, tea industry, food processing industry, sugar industry, perfume industry, animal husbandry, dairy, and fisheries industry, jute industry, etc. based on agriculture. In the years since its independence, India has made immense progress towards food security. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32% of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India. India is expected to achieve the ambitious goal of doubling farm income by 2022.
Types of Indian Agriculture
At present, the following types of agriculture are done in different parts of India-
A) Sustainable Agriculture
It is the most widely practiced farming technique of Indian agriculture. In this, the farmer family produces food crops for sale in the local market along with their domestic requirements. He grows 2-3 crops a year in his fields intensively. In India, this type of farming is done in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, etc.
B) Transferring Agriculture
In this, farmers usually do farming by burning or cleaning the forests in the traditional way for the maintenance of their family. When soil fertility decreases, farmers leave it and start farming in the same way. After some time, the land that has been abandoned and left naturally becomes fertile, hence, it is cultivated again. This type of Indian agriculture is also called ‘shearing combustion agriculture’. In India’s northern eastern Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland, it is called ‘Jhoom Krishi’, Pamlu in Manipur, and Bastar district of Chhattisgarh and Andaman and Nicobar Deep group called ‘Deepa’.
C) Intensive agriculture
This kind of Indian agriculture is done more in those areas where the pressure of population on the land is high. It is cultivated with the help of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, improved seeds, and advanced agricultural implements to increase production according to population pressure. Due to population growth in India, the area of arable land per family is decreasing from generation to generation, due to which continuous efforts are being made to get maximum yield from the land.
D) Commercial Agriculture
Under commercial agriculture, high-yielding and profitable crops are produced, so that they can be exported to other areas to earn maximum profit. Commercial crops like wheat, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, etc. are currently being grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and many other states.
E) Horticulture or Planting Agriculture
Rubber, tea, coconut, cocoa, spices, coffee, and fruits are cultivated under it. Planting agriculture is largely done with the help of excessive capital and workers. It cultivates a single crop over a large area. Products derived from it are used as raw materials in various industries. Tea is the most important planting crop in Assam and North Bengal in India and in Karnataka. Planting is the production for sale in agriculture, so industries and markets related to transportation and means of communication contribute significantly to its development. Cultivation of fruits like mango, banana, apple, pear, guava, gooseberry, today, etc. is also done under horticulture or planting agriculture in different parts of India.
F) Aquaponics / Hydroponics
Aquaponics is a rare agricultural technology that has just arrived in India developed by Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), C-DAC (C-DAC), Mohali, on 13 October 2020. This type of farming technique in which fish, as well as plants, are grown in an integrated manner. The fish waste provides fertilizer for growing plants. Plants absorb nutrients and filter water. This water is used to refill the fish tank.