Towards Civil Disobedience:
Seeing the growing trend of violence, Mahatma Gandhi withdrew the non-cooperation movement in 1922 and he felt that satyagrahis needed extensive training. Some Congress leaders were tired of such mass struggles. They wanted to participate in the election of the Provincial Council constituted under the Government of India Act 1919. He thought that opposing British policies while in councils, it is also important to advocate reforms and show that these councils are not democratic institutions. CR Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to return to council politics. Young leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose were pushing for a more radical movement and independence. Meanwhile, the impact of the worldwide economic slowdown also started to get serious on India. When the demand for agricultural products started falling, the exports started falling, so the farmers had to sell their products and pay the rent too. By 1930, the countryside was undergoing a heavy upheaval.
In the same background, the new Tory government of Britain constituted a 7-member statutory commission under the leadership of Sir John Simon on 8 November 1927 to study and suggest the working of the constitutional system in India. Was not an Indian member. On 30 October 1928, when this Commission reached Lahore to review the constitutional reforms and prepare a report, all over India
The slogans of “Simon Go Back” (Simon Commission Go Back) started. To calm the protest, Lahore Superintendent of Police Scott ordered a lathi charge (to beat by stick). Sher-e-Punjab Lala Lajpat Rai was so injured that he died within a year from the injury by the stick of Deputy Superintendent of Police Sanders. In this incident, Lala Lajpat Rai had said that “Every single stick lying on me will prove to be a nail in the coffin of the British Government”. All parties including Congress and Muslim League took part in the demonstration, to calm the Viceroy Lord Irwin. In October 1929, the Dominion Status for India was announced. He just said that a round table conference would be held to discuss the future constitution for India but did not give any definite time limit for it. Congress leaders were not satisfied with this proposal, in December 1929, the Lahore session of the Congress under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru formally accepted the demand for complete self-rule and decided that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day and On that day people will take an oath of the struggle for complete self-rule.
Namak Yatra (Dandi Yatra) and Civil Disobedience Movement:
Mahatma Gandhi was seen as a powerful symbol of salt to unite the country as it was used by the rich and poor, hence the tax on salt and government monopoly on its production was the first oppressive of the British government. Told. In 1930 Mahatma Gandhi wrote a letter to Viceroy Lord Irwin in which he mentioned his demands, some of these demands were general, while some of the demands were related to the protection of the farmers and industrialists of the country. He wanted to join all sections with him so that all the people of the country could get support in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Under this, the following programs were prescribed:
1: Salt should be made by yourself in violation of salt law.
2: Boycott of government services, education centers, and degrees should be boycotted.
3: Women should picket themselves at liquor, opium, and foreign clothing shops.
4: All foreign objects should be burned while boycotting them.
5: Stop the tax payment.
This letter of Mahatma Gandhi was like an ultimatum or warning that he wrote that if his demands are not met by 11 March, Congress will launch a civil disobedience movement. But Viceroy Lord Irwin was not ready to bow down. As a result, Mahatma Gandhi, along with his 78 trusted volunteers, started the Salt Yatra, the journey was to end in a Gujarati coastal town called Dandi, 240 kilometers from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati, Gandhiji’s team traveled 10 miles daily on foot for 24 days. Decided and stopped at various places along the way and made people aware and explained the meaning of Swarajya and exhorted them to disobey the British peacefully, that is, do not obey the English laws without resorting to violence. On April 6, 1930, he reached Dandi and violated the salt law by boiling water along the sea and making salt. This is where the Satyagraha movement started. Salt laws were broken in various parts of the country, demonstrations were started in front of government salt factories, a boycott of foreign cloth, picketing of liquor shops, farmers refused to pay tax and chowkidari tax, Employees stationed in the village resigned, and in many places began to violate forest laws living in the forests.
Frightened by these incidents, the British government started arresting the Congress leaders. Violent demonstrations began to take place everywhere when angry Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, known as Frontier Gandhi, and Mahatma Gandhi were arrested when angry mobs started attacking police posts, municipality buildings, courts, and railway stations. Panicously, the government adopted the path of repression, lakhs of people were beaten to death and about one lakh people were arrested.