Crops of India
A variety of crops are grown in different regions of India due to differences in soil, climate, and agricultural practices. These include food and fiber crops, vegetables, fruits, spices, etc. On the basis of seasons, crops of India can be mainly divided into the following three parts:
a) Rabi Crops of India
Rabi crops are sown in the winter season from October to December and are harvested between April and June. Wheat, gram, pea, mustard, etc. are the major rabi crops. North and North Western states like Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh are the major states producing Rabi crops. Rainfall from a western disturbance in the winter season helps in increasing the production of these crops.
Wheat occupies a prominent place in the rabi crops. It is the second major food crop in India after rice. The wheat crop requires 50 to 80 cm of rainfall. The Gangetic-Sutlej Plain in the northwest and the black soil region of the Deccan are the two major wheat-producing regions in India. China ranks first and India is second in wheat production in the world.
Another major crop of rabi, India ranks first (about 75%) in the production of a gram. Gram is a prominent place in pulses in terms of both area and production. It is cultivated in dry and cold climate crops were 60 to 90 cm. It rains Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujar are the main gram producing states of the country.
In terms of mustard production and area, India ranks third in the world after China and Canada. After peanuts in India, mustard is the second most important oilseed crop grown mainly in Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, and Assam Gujarat. Normally this crop is sown in November-December and harvested in March-April.
b) Kharif Crops of India
In India, Kharif crops are sown in the middle of August-September after the first monsoon rains. Rice, maize, jawar, bajra, moong, urad, arhar, cotton, groundnut, soybean, etc. are the major Kharif crops. The monsoons of the south-western and the Bay of Bengal are a boon for the production of these crops because Kharif crops require more water.
Rice is the major crop in Kharif crops. Rice is the staple food of most of the people in our country. The production of rice like wheat in the world is also the highest in India after China. Rice production requires 25 to 30 ° C temperature and 100–150 cm of rainfall. Rice is produced in large quantities in the north and northeastern plains, seaside areas, and delta regions of India. West Bengal ranks first in rice production in India followed by Uttar Pradesh and Punjab respectively.
Jawar is the third important food crop in the country in terms of area and production. It depends on rainfall. Mostly grown in humid areas, it does not require irrigation. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh are the major jawar producing states.
India is the second-largest producer of groundnut in the world after China. It is most commonly grown in the states of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. Sowing of peanuts often takes place with the onset of monsoon. In North India, this time is normally between 15 June to 15 July.
c) Zaid Crops of India
Zaid crops are sown in summer between Rabi and Kharif crops. It mainly cultivates watermelon, melon, cucumber, cucumber, various types of vegetables, and fodder crops. The crops have a good ability to withstand strong heat and dry winds. Normally, the sowing time of these crops is between 1 February to 10 March. Sowing during this period creates harvesting conditions until the arrival of summer.
Top Crop-Producing States of India
- West Bengal, the largest producer of paddy
- Uttar Pradesh, the largest producer of wheat
- Uttar Pradesh, the largest producer of sugarcane
- Uttar Pradesh, the largest producer of potatoes
- Gujarat is the largest producer of groundnut
- Assam, the largest producer of tea
- The largest producer of coffee Karnataka
- West Bengal, the largest producer of jute
- Andhra Pradesh, the largest producer of tobacco
- Tamil Nadu, the largest producer of bananas
- Tamil Nadu, the largest producer of cassava
- The largest producer of saffron Jammu and Kashmir
- Maharashtra, the largest producer of onions
- The largest producer of cashew Maharashtra
- Madhya Pradesh largest producer of garlic
- Kerala is the largest producer of black pepper
- Gujarat is the largest producer of cotton
- Assam is the largest producer of bamboo
- Bihar is the largest producer of litchi
- Kerala, the largest producer of small cardamom
- Sikkim, the largest producer of large cardamom