Narration Part -1

direct and indirect speech

Meaning of Narration

Narration in means report or explanation or story or tale. In daily life, we convey the talk of another to a third in two ways.
The first way is to tell someone else’s words in the same words directly to the third person.  Like-

Deepak (the other person) said to me, “I will go to the market tomorrow (listener-third Personal).”

Another way is to speak the other person’s words in their own words (Indirect speech). Like –

Deepak told me that he will go to the market tomorrow.

Here we see that a statement or statement can be reached to the listener in two ways. These two methods are the following two types of Narration.

Types of Narration

There are two types of narration as mentioned below:

1. Direct Speech / Narration:

In this, we express the words of the speaker as soon as possible without any change. like-
He said, “I am writing a letter.”
Under this, we write the words of the speaker within the inverted comma. This part of the sentence is called Reported Speech. The remaining part of the sentence is called Reporting Speech. Reporting Speech in verb
Often the word ‘said’ is used. Reporting Speech is always written out of the inverted comma, but a comma is used after it.

2. Indirect Speech / Narration

In this, we reveal the words or expressions of the speaker in his own words without saying the statement as it is. The inverted comma is not used in it. like-
He said that he was writing a letter.

General rules for converting Direct Speech / Narration to Indirect Speech / Narration:

  1. Indirect Speech Indirect Speech removes inverted commas.
  2. The comma is not used after reporting verb.
  3. The tense of reporting verb never changes.
  4. After the Reporting Speech, a proper combination as per requirement, such as that, if, whether, to, etc. apply.
  5. The first letter of Reported Speech is written in small letters, except for I and proper noun.
  6. Reporting verb according to the sense of Reported Speech, told, stated, requested, asked, ordered, commanded, advised, etc. Let’s change it.
  7. Tense, pronouns, and proximity to time and position change as a rule in and indirect speech

Types of sentences in terms of meaningnarration

1. Assertive sentences:

The sentences that give information about facts, history, incidents, opinions, events, feeling, and beliefs. Most of the sentences in the English language are assertive sentences. like-

Pt Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India.

2. Interrogative sentences:

The sentences that ask a direct question and always end in a question mark are called the interrogative question. like-

Where do you live?

3. Imperative sentences:

The sentences that are used to issue an instruction, command, make a request, or offer advice are called imperative sentences. like-

Let’s go to school.

Do your work.

4. Optative sentences:

The optative sentences express a prayer, wish, curse, etc. like-

Wish you a very successful married life.

5. Exclamatory sentences

An exclamatory sentence makes a statement but it also conveys excitement or emotion.

Hurrah! we have won the match.

Note- In the next parts of the narration we shall learn about the rules of conversion of direct speech into the indirect speech of these types of sentences.

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