Properties of Acids and Bases
There are many properties of acids and bases. Some of the general properties are mentioned below-
Properties of Acids
- Acids are sour in taste and soluble in the water.
- Acids turn blue litmus paper red.
- The nature of acids is corrosive, their action destroys cloth, wood, paper, skin, etc.
- Acids react with various active metals such as zinc, sodium, magnesium, etc. to release hydrogen gas.
Mg + H2SO4 = MgSO4+ H2
- Acids react with bases or metal oxides to destroy their effects and make salts and water. This action is called a neutralization reaction.
HCl + KOH = KCl + H2O
- When the acids are added to the water, the temperature of the water starts to increase, it is called an exothermic reaction. That is why when adding strong acids to water, while adding dilute the acids, slowly add them to the water. Do not add water to acid because it will generate a lot of heat, which can jump the acid out of the vessel and harm us.
- An aqueous solution of an acid is a conductor of electricity because free ions are present in it.
Uses of acid
There are many types of acids and their uses. Some of them mentioned below-
- Sulfuric acid is used in battery making, petroleum industry, artificial fibers, fertilizer manufacturing, chemical laboratories, etc.
- Nitric acid is used in the purification of gold and silver, as a reagent in the laboratory to make fertilizers, medicines, explosives, etc.
- Hydrochloric acid is used in the textile industry to perform various types of tests in laboratories, etc. in cleaning the sheets of iron before dyeing the cloth.
- Acetic acid is used in vinegar and pickle making, chemical laboratories, etc.
- Carbonic/phosphoric acid used in making carbonated drinks.
- Tartaric acid used in the making of baking powder.
- Boric acid used for food preservation and eyewash.
- Carbonic acid in the pH controlling in the blood.
Properties of Bases
1. The bases combine in water and are pungent and bitter in taste.
2. The bases turn the red litmus paper blue.
3. The bases are smooth like soap upon touching.
4. Similar to acids, the base is also corrosive in nature but is less than that of acids.
5. The bases are smooth like soap upon touching.
6. Acting with base acids, it forms salts and water. This is called a neutralization reaction.
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O
7. The bases also react with non-metallic oxides to form salts and water.
2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O
8. Some bases are reduced to basic oxide and water upon heating. Such as Mg (OH) 2
9. Strong bases give a high amount of weak and weak bases hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. 10.Aluminum hydroxide used in the making of fire extinguishers.
Uses of Bases
There are many types of bases and their uses. Some of them mentioned below-
1. Aluminium hydroxide is used in making textiles and antacids.
2. Calcium hydroxide is used in softening saltwater, making bleaching powder, etc.
3. Ammonium hydroxide is used to make a cleansing agent and ammonia salts.
4. Sodium hydroxide is used in making soap, washing soda, rayon, etc. 5. KOH used in the production of liquid soaps and soft soaps. Used in alkaline batteries. 6. Ca(OH)2 Used in the manufacture of cement and lime water. Also, added to neutralize acidic soil.
Neutralization of Acid and Base
Neutralization is the reaction of an acid with a base that results in the pH moving towards 7. The reaction between an acid and a base invariably gives salt and water and is called neutralization. In a neutralization reaction, one H+ ion of acid is neutralized by one OH– ion is base. When all the H+ ions in the acidic solution are neutralized by the same number of OH– ions of the basic solution, it is called complete neutralization.