The smallest particles of a substance from which it is formed are called elements. All atoms of an element are equal. The element which tends to give up electrons and make cation is called metal. Such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), etc.
The major physical properties of metals are as follows:
1. Metallic luster
The metallic luster is an important physical property of metals. The surface of metals is luminous due to the presence of free electrons. Sometimes by applying a paste of material on metals, its surface is also made shiny. Due to this property, metals are used to make jewelry and decoration items. Only iodine and graphite are non-metals that are shiny.
2. Conductors of Electricity and Heat
The conductivity of electricity and heat are the important physical properties of metals. Due to the presence of free electrons, metals are conductors of electricity and heat. Silver and copper are the best conductors of electricity and heat. Due to the same properties of metals, copper, and aluminum wires are used in electrical equipment. Although silver is the best conductive metal in electricity, it is very rarely used in electrical equipment due to its high cost. Most of the cooking utensils are made of iron, aluminum, and copper due to the heat conductor. Lead and mercury are exceptions.
Some metals can be beaten and made of sheets. This property is called malleability. In the physical properties of metals, malleability is a very useful property. A metal that can be hammered, rolled, or pressed into various shapes without cracking or breaking or other detrimental effects that are said to be malleable. Such as silver and gold are highly malleable metals. They can be beaten into thin sheets of thickness less than 0.0001mm. Therefore they are used in the manufacture of designer jewelry. Aluminum sheets are also used in packing canned foods due to their highly shock-absorbing properties. Exceptions are zinc and mercury.
Some metals can be pulled and converted into thin wire. This specific property of them is called ductility. For example, 2 kilometers of fine wire can be made from 1 gram of gold. Tungsten can be made almost invisible ie very fine wires. Exceptions are zinc, mercury, and gallium.
Most metals are hardened at normal temperatures. Exceptions are sodium and potassium soft metals while mercury and gallium are liquid metals.
All metals are high-density elements so they are heavy. The higher the density of metals, the heavier they are. There are exceptions to basic metals such as sodium, potassium, etc.
7. High melting point and boiling point
The High melting and boiling point are the important physical properties of metals. The temperature at which a solid object converts to a liquid state is called its melting point and the temperature at which an object starts converting from a liquid state to vapor is called its boiling point. Most metals have high melting and boiling points. For example, the melting point of iron is 1535 degrees centigrade, the melting point of copper is 1038 degrees centigrade. As an exception, the melting and boiling points of some metals like sodium, potassium, gallium, cesium, etc. are relatively low.
All metals other than mercury and gallium are in the solid state at normal temperature. Only mercury and gallium are metals that are found in the liquid state at normal temperature.
9. Formation of alloys
Alloys interact with metals to form alloys. Alloys are Bronze (Cu = 88% + Sn = 12%), Brass (Cu = 70% + Zn = 30%), Bell Metal (Cu = 80% + Sn = 20%), etc.
A specific type of sound is produced by beating the metal with a hammer, which is also called a metallic sound. Due to the same properties of metals, they are also used in making strings of musical instruments.
If a substance breaks down on injury, it is a brittle substance. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. Most metals are rigid so they do not have the properties of brittleness.