Immune System

Plasma cells produce and segregate antibodies. The antibodies mark pathogens for destruction by phagocytic cells, they coat key sites on pathogens necessary for infection, and they induce the complement cascade to react against antibody-bound pathogens.

Introduction of Immune System Immunity is the power of a person to acknowledge the “self” molecules that makeup one’s personal physique and to differentiate them from such “nonself” molecules as these present in infectious microorganisms and toxins. This course has outstanding genetic details. Information of the genetic and molecular foundation of the mammalian immune system… Continue reading Immune System

Types of Nutrition

Dietitian writing a diet plan, view from above on the table with different healthy products and drawings on the topic of healthy eating

Definition of Nutrition All organisms need nutrients to survive and function. The biochemical and physiological process of obtaining these nutrients ( proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes) from different types of food is called the nutrition of the organism. This process includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. Types of Nutrition: Types of nutrition in different animals can… Continue reading Types of Nutrition


Nutrients The nutrients are substances used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. Different types of organisms need different essential nutrients. According to Its needs of animals divide nutrients into macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are commonly used in a relatively large amount. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc are examples of macronutrients. Micronutrients are commonly used… Continue reading Nutrients

Nutrition In Animals

Animals cannot make food on their own. They depend on plants for their food either directly or indirectly. All organisms including humans require nutrients for the growth, repair, and functioning of the body. They get these nutrients from the digestion of food. Process of Nutrition In Animals: There are five steps in the process of… Continue reading Nutrition In Animals


Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the lymph and blood plasma.  Digestion in human is a long process so for the convenience of study it is divided into these 5 steps, as mentioned below: a) Digestion in Buccal Cavity: … Continue reading Digestion