respiratory system

Needs of Respiration

Every organism needs the energy to survive, for this, it has important biological functions like nutrition, respiration, and excretion. Under the process of nutrition, it receives nutrients from its environment through food, under the process of respiration, these nutrients are oxidized in the cells in the presence of oxygen, which releases carbon dioxide, water, and energy, and Under the process of excretion, residual substances obtained from nutrition and self-release are released out of the body.


Introduction of Respiration

The action of the oxidation process with the help of various types of enzymes of organic compounds in cells is called respiration. In this process, carbon dioxide, water, and energy are produced. This generated energy is stored as potential energy in a particular type of ATP molecule. Breathing can be compared to combustion because both processes oxidize organic materials to form carbon dioxide and water and release energy but There are also some fundamental differences between the two which are as follows:

Difference Between Respiration and Combustion:

1– Respiration is the biochemical action under biological control, while combustion is the action of uncontrolled chemical oxidation.

2– Respiration occurs at a normal temperature of 25 to 45 °C while combustion occurs at extremely high temperatures.

3- The respiratory activity requires enzymes while combustion does not require enzymes.

4– The energy released in the breathing process is stored in a special substance called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) while the entire energy in the combustion is released into the atmosphere in the form of heat and light.

Types of Respiration

There are two types of respiration depending on the presence of oxygen.

1: Aerobic or Oxy Respiration:

Oxy Respiration is the action in the presence of oxygen and complete oxidation of organic matter. It releases carbon dioxide water and a large amount of energy (38 ATP or 673 K.Cal). This type of respiratory activity occurs in all autotrophic plants and most animals. This can be understood from the following equation-



2: Anaerobic or Anoxic Respiration:

This action occurs in the absence of oxygen. It is also called Fermentation. It contains only partial oxidation of organic matter (about 5%). Therefore it contains ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, and very little energy (2 ATP or 27 K.Cal) free. This type of respiration occurs in many types of fungi, bacteria, and humans while doing hard work in muscles. Can it be expressed by the following equation-

Anaerobic respiration

Mechanism of respiration:

Respiration is a long process. This process can be mainly divided into the following 2 parts:

1- External Respiration:


Under this activity, gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and the respiratory surface with the help of the respiratory organs. For this activity, all vertebrates (eg reptiles, birds, beasts, etc.) are found in the external bronchial skin like frogs, gills in fish, nasal passages, nasal, lungs, etc. in humans. While there are no specific organs for respiration in plants, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged between the respiratory surface and the atmosphere by the stomata. It involves respiration in humans, gaseous exchange in the lungs, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases through the blood from the lungs to the cells.

2- Internal or Cellular Respiration:Respiration

The process of releasing carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the oxidation of organic matter within the cell is called internal or cellular respiration. It is a complex activity occurring in the presence of various types of enzymes in all animals and living cells of plants. The energy derived from this is used in a variety of biological and physical activities.

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